Another very important concept that you should be familiar with in computer programming is the framework. A Framework is an application base made up of several libraries. Using Frameworks is relevant in the sense that some structures are already in place and Professional Resume Writing Services. These structures are based among other things on a defined language, a design pattern or a programming paradigm.
The advantage is that you no longer have to reinvent the wheel. Architecture is already ready. Which makes your job easier.
Several Frameworks exist, and this for any type of programming language. For example, in Java, to develop microservices , there is the Spring Boot framework , for object / relational mapping, there is the Hibernate framework , for unit tests, there is JUnit , etc. For Python developers, there is Django, Pyramid or Bottle. In PHP, there is Symfony, Laravel, CodeIgniter, etc. For developers who work with Microsoft products, there is the .NET framework. Even in Big Data, we have frameworks, like Apache Spark , or the Hadoop ecosystem for massively parallel processing of data.
Today, mastering a Framework is essential to develop software. In a pinch, you don't have to know how to use design patterns; on the other hand, mastering at least one framework is essential!
Of course, as you can imagine, the algorithm is essential in programming. An algorithm is a set of instructions to be followed to achieve a result.
In other words, it is the plan that you will follow when writing the codes that will be interpreted by the machine. The algorithm is the reasoning you apply to solve a problem. It is the basis of your computer program.
In the rest of this part, we will see how to build an algorithm. We will also see the different instructions included in an algorithm and examples of their implementation.
The exact word for a bookstore is a library . As the name suggests, it is a set of functions already compiled and ready to be used in a defined language. It empowers you to perform a task without you coding it.
To use a library, you just need to import it into your program. These files have for example the extension .dll, .ocx and many more. The format differs depending on the language.
Once imported, you could call its functions. Usually, each function has a detailed description of its use and buy argumentative essays online.
Take for example this program in C:
In this function, we call on the " math.h " library in order to execute the square root of a * b . This saves you from having to code an additional square root function in your program.
classes, objects and functions
The class can be compared to a mold in which an object is made. It is especially in object-oriented programming that this notion takes on its full meaning. It groups together the attributes and methods that will constitute an object.
You therefore call on a specific class when you need to create an object with its attributes and methods. This is called instantiating a class.
Let's see an example class, but this time in C #:
In the program, we use an instance of class A in class B to perform an addition between x and y. This means that you can use the methods from one class to another without any hassle. Click on the following link for more details on object oriented programming and classes.
At the end of what you have just seen, we deduce the object. The object is the result of instantiating a class. In the previous example, A1 is therefore an object of class A. You can subsequently create other objects A2, A3, etc. thanks to class A.
You now know that an object is an instantiation of a class. And you also learned that each class contains attributes and methods. Well, functions are just those methods.
A function is used to execute the requests of the program using a series of instructions . A function can have one or more parameters. It may also not have any. The same is true of its return value.
To write a function without a return value, for example, you would use the prefix " void ". And for those that have values, often it is the type of the value that will be prefixed. We will see a little further down the types that exist in computer variables and their type
To store data or the result of your operations, you will need a medium. These supports are variables. It temporarily or permanently stores the values manipulated during the execution of your program . This gives it the name of variable , because its state can be changed.
The declaration of a variable changes depending on the language. There are some that precede it with the prefix var and others begin with its type.
Speaking of type, each variable has one in particular. This serves to identify the area in which it takes its values. There are several basic types (because it should be noted that you can create your own types when writing your programs):
The numeric types : int, double, float, long, long int, byte. Currency types and dates are part of the numeric types.
The alphanumeric type : char, string.
The boolean type : bool.
Before executing an instruction, you must retrieve the values that you will use during this instruction. Is not it ? So where exactly to store these values?
The data structures are used precisely to carry out this storage among others. But this is not done just any old way, there is a precise classification established during the creation of the structure.
There are several types of data structures such as lists and arrays, for example, which we will see below. But also, other more or less complex types such as graphs, stacks, queues, etc. Since you will be required to use these data structures systematically, we will see the most important among them in more detail.
A list is an ordered collection of data of the same type. Its definition and characteristics may change from one language to another. For example, in scala programming , a list is an immutable collection of data of the same type.
The principle of an array is similar to that of a list. The difference is that the number of rows is predefined . You can create a table with multiple rows and multiple columns, just like any other table. As with lists, the definition and characteristics of the table vary depending on the language. In scala for example, an array is an ordered and mutable collection of values of the same type. Here is an example of an array declaration, inserting and reading a value
As for multi-dimensional arrays, two in this case, here's how it looks:
Base # 10: operators
Operators in computer programming, like those you can find in arithmetic, are the symbols that allow you to perform operations . But in addition to the functions that operators have in mathematics, those used in programming can act on all types of variables: boolean, alphanumeric and numeric.
Operators can be unary, binary, and ternary. That is, they can perform several different operations at the same time and buy thesis online.
Let's see some examples of operator:
"+", "-", "x" and "/" have a function similar to those that we have found since our childhood;
For Euclidean division with remainder, you have "%";
To increment or decrement a value, there are "++" and "-";
To assign a value to a variable or for the result of an operation or to determine whether two or more values are equal, you will use either ": =", or "==" or "=";
To express a differentiation, you would use "! =";
To express superiority you have ">" or "> =" and for inferiority, it is "<" and "<=";
The Boolean operators are: "&&" (and), "|| " (or and " ! " (no) ;
The logical operators are: "&" (and), "| "(Or)," ~ "(non) and" ^ "(NOR or in French" or exclusive ").
After that, it should still be noted that the meaning of the operators vary greatly depending on the programming language. Let us illustrate the operators with examples in Java.
Here, we add a and b to affect the result in c. We therefore use the operator “+” for the addition and “=” for the assignment.
As for the previous example, we always do "a + b", but this time we subject the two variables to a condition. We test whether their value is different from 0 with the operator “! =” By separating the two conditions with the operator “&&”.
This time, we check if b is equal to 0. For that, we use the ternary operator “?:” To submit the condition. So this expression means: if b = 0, c = a, otherwise c = a + b.
The operators allow us to directly introduce the rest of the article, namely the conditions.
Base # 11: conditional and iterative instructions
These are instructions that allow you to specify conditions, execution branches, and iterations (or loops). You will systematically use them in your computer programs.
A condition allows you to check whether an assertion is true or false, as its name suggests. This is used to evaluate the instruction to be executed. In algorithm here is how it is illustrated:
You see that there are two branches for the execution of the program. An instruction to be executed if the condition is true and a different one if it is not. Each return value has a block of instructions that the program will execute.
However, during your walk, you will be led to see a condition without giving an instruction when the statement is false. This is the case with our example in the operator section. But for a complete condition here is how it is written:
You might also see nested condition shapes. That is to say a series of conditions which will issue instructions according to their results.
Also called iterative instructions , these are instructions that will most often be exercised on data structures (most often arrays and lists). They allow you to browse them, perform operations on them and change their values.
The use of loops is also suitable when you want to manipulate data strings or iterate a set of instructions a specific number of times or according to a condition.
There are several types of curls that we will see right away.
The For loop
This is the ideal loop when you want to iterate through an array. It will retrieve the values from it in the order you specified in the loop declaration. This loop also allows you to iterate over an instruction a specific number of times. What you see below is the basic algorithm of a loop.
And here's how it is written in code. Please always remember that this is just an example of how to code. The syntax may change depending on the language.
In this snippet of code, the result will display a digit starting from 0 and until i reaches 10.
The ForEach loop
As for foreach , it is more used on a list. However, nothing prevents you from using it on a table. Like the for loop , it also iterates through the contents of the list and essay writing.
In algorithm, this gives what we see below:
It will therefore browse the list and for each value, execute instructions. Once the list is empty, the program continues. You can therefore deduce that it decrements the list on each call. Here is a sample code from foreach:
The While Loop
So far we have seen conditional iterators , that is, loops that execute instructions only if a condition is met. This is not the case with the while loop . Indeed, this one requests the condition after the execution of the instructions. And if the condition is not met, the loop begins again. The instructions will therefore be executed at least once.
However, you can also use it like the other loops. That is to say at the start of the instruction.
Here's how the algorithm looks:
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