Parts of the essay
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Parts of the essay
For academic texts to be easy to read and easy to find, they usually follow a predetermined structure. This structure may differ slightly depending on the topic you are writing in, but aims at the same goal: to make it easy for the reader to find in the text. The role of the structure in this is to be the body itself that holds the different parts together. No matter how advanced your text is, the different parts of the text must relate to each other for the reader to follow your reasoning. Each part also has a special function. It is through how you build the different parts that you create a context and my premium essay.
In this part of the Writing Guide, you get advice on which overall parts should be included in essays and reports. You also get a description of the function of the different parts. If you want to read more about how to create a linguistic structure at the chapter, paragraph, and sentence level, see Creating context.
Depending on how extensive your work is and what level of education you are at, the different parts of the essay can weigh differently. Therefore, always follow the instructions for the task when planning your writing. Under Resources, you will find templates and other resources from the universities that develop Skrivguiden.se.
Work with good structure is characterized by that
all questions asked have been answered or clarified
the reader understands where the author wants to go
all statements feel relevant to the whole
the theory you have outlined is used to analyze and interpret data
the method is well described and corresponds to your problem formulation
the results correspond to the purpose
the discussion connects empiricism, theory, and method
the conclusions are motivated by what emerges in the discussion
Keep in mind that!
The scientific work follows a specific structure, which may differ depending on the subject area. In the scientific and technical subjects, the IMRoD model is common (from the English IMRaD: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion). In the social sciences and humanities, the structure is freer and resume writing world.
To dispose of a scientific text
For a description of how you can structure your thesis, among other things based on the IMRaD model, see the film from Lund University with Sara Santesson's lecture "Disposing of a scientific text":
"Thread spool" - a holistic perspective on your essay
A suitable model to use when writing your essay is the "spool of thread". The model describes a holistic perspective on academic essays and assumes that you as a writer begin to write in general terms, become increasingly specific over time, and end by explaining the specifics you have arrived at in more general terms. Simplified, you can describe it as starting in the big, going to the small, and ending by showing how the small you have chosen to write about affects the big.
The thread spool model shows how important it is not to just write about exactly what you are interested in; You also need to put what you write in a context that can be understood by others. Again, it is communicative in writing that is in focus and write my essay.
Not all tasks require you to have a title page, but if so, it is good to know that most colleges have templates or instructions on how to design your title page. It is important to keep in mind that the title page should quickly provide information to the reader about the title, author, and type of work. It should also provide information about which education and college you are studying at.
How do I come up with a great title?
A good title should at the same time arouse interest and describe what the work is about. It is not always the easiest thing to combine. Here are some tips to help you get started:
Abstract or summary
An abstract or summary provides a brief account of the main content of an essay. The purpose of the summary is partly to arouse interest, partly to present the main problem and the most important results. The most important thing is that the summary captures what the essay is about. Shorter essays usually do not require a summary.
The summary is conveniently written when you are almost done. Only then do you know what you have written? It can be good too, in addition to the essay, also work with a draft summary, which you rephrase over time. The summary is a difficult text to write because it should cover a lot of content in a small space. But that is also why it is a useful text to work with, as you are forced to formulate what the work is about.
Table of Contents
If you are writing a longer text, such as an essay, you may be required to have a table of contents. Do not underestimate the importance of it! Instead, see it as an opportunity to give the reader an idea of what the text is about at an early stage. You do this by formulating headings and subheadings that briefly explain what each chapter contains. You can read more about how to formulate headings under Drafts in the Writing process section.
Example of table of contents
Keep in mind that the headings in the table of contents are preceded by numbers only if the headings inside the report do so. Numbers, and sometimes even font size, can also be used to display the levels of the headings.
In most word processing programs, there are templates for a table of contents that the program then creates for you. By using these, you make sure that the list is correct and looks good.
In this film from Linköping University, you can, among other things, learn more about how to easily create tables of contents, page numbers, and style sheets in Microsoft Word.
The introduction usually contains:
Background to the subject
Purpose and problem formulation
Description of the outline of the text
An introduction is needed to engage and engage the reader in the subject . It acts as a soft start and orientation. The purpose of the text is usually included in the introduction, but sometimes, especially in longer works, the purpose is allowed to have its own subheading. In the introduction, you can also provide a background to the topic and an overview of the current research situation to place the topic in a larger context. The introduction aims to lead to the thesis' problem formulation.
Do not write that you are interested in the topic, but instead describe why it is interesting. It is the subject that should be in focus, not you as a writer.
The introduction is not something you write on only at the beginning of your work and then put aside. It is a text that should reflect the whole essay. It is therefore a good idea to return to the introduction during the work to see if something needs to be added, deleted or reformulated. Feel free to see the introduction as a mirror of your discussion and your conclusions. Everything you come to should be able to be linked to what you have written in your introduction and essay.
The background should give the reader the background information he needs to understand the context in which your research was done. Depending on the scope of your text, the background is sometimes included in the introductory chapter and sometimes stands as a separate chapter. If you are unsure about what applies - talk to your teacher or supervisor.
In the background, you can, for example, make a historical overview and explain important concepts. If you are writing an essay in pedagogy, you may describe relevant governing documents (school law, curriculum, etc.). If, on the other hand, your dissertation deals with a care science subject, you may explain certain medical terms or concepts.
In the background section - or in a separate chapter - you also report previous research in the field. Here you describe such research that is relevant to your own thesis. It can be about similar studies that have been done or studies whose research results can in some way be related to your results. You must also justify why the research you report is relevant to your own research.
The best way to learn to write a certain type of text is to read other texts of that text type. Ask your teacher for sample texts, or search in DiVA ; there you can find both student essays and research publications produced at a large number of Swedish universities.
Purpose and problem formulation
The purpose and problem formulation are the very core of the introduction. Everything you write in the introduction, and by extension in your essay, therefore needs to be in relation to the purpose. Sometimes you may also need to break down your problem formulation into one or more research questions. Read more about how to formulate purpose, problem formulation, and research questions under Purpose, problem formulation, and research questions in the section on the writing process.
Description of the outline of the text - metatext
One way to make it easier for the reader is to make a description of how the essay is structured in the introduction. This way of writing is usually called metatext. Metatext is a text about the text.
Examples of metatext can be found in several places in the Writing Guide, for example at the beginning of this page: “In this part of the Writing Guide, you get advice on which overall parts should be included in essays and reports and a description of what function the different parts have. ”
Metatext acts as a guide for the reader. You can use metatext in all parts of your essay. More information about metatext can be found in the section that creates context.